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The editors shall thus not be held responsible for any obligation or legal action that may derive from the work submitted in terms of violation of third parties' rights, whether intellectual property, trade secret or any other right. (Revista Anàlisi) (Revista Anàlisi) Wed, 30 Jun 2021 09:30:57 +0200 OJS 60 Vetting and verifying multimodal false information. A challenge for democratic societies Presentation of the volume 64. Sebastián Sánchez-Castillo, Carlos López-Olano Copyright (c) 2021 Sebastián Sánchez-Castillo, Carlos López-Olano Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 The handling of political disinformation in the TV series “Yes, Minister” (BBC, 1980-1984) and its impact on YouTube <em>Yes, Minister</em> is a series that has been part of the collective imagination of citizens in many English-speaking countries since the 1980s, in which disinformation is frequently used or mentioned by its main characters. Its enormous impact has been long-lasting, and in recent years it has gained special prominence on YouTube. The objectives of this paper are the following: a) to quantify the presence of fragments of the series <em>Yes, Minister</em> on YouTube, including their titles, the episodes to which they belong, their duration and the number of views and comments; and b) to analyse the processes, strategies and mechanisms of disinformation in these fragments. To this end, we first described the fragments with more than 200,000 views, of which there were forty. After this analysis, we chose the videos with more than 400,000 views and, in those, analysed the processes, strategies and mechanisms of disinformation. There were twenty-two such documents and they contained as many as 125 samples of disinformation: mostly associated with the process of concealment, followed by blurring and, thirdly, invention. We went on to check for the presence of the nine strategies linked to these processes (abolition, segmentation, deviation, saturation, alteration, divergence, impersonation, incorporation and transformation). Abolition and alteration predominated. Finally, we described the main mechanisms by which these strategies materialised, which included contradiction, confusion, ambiguity, exaggeration, interruption, separation and assignment. We conclude that the publication of the series fragments on the networks indicates public interest in political disinformation. Their use in formal educational contexts, based on analyses such as the one in this paper, is a valuable approach for dealing with discursive processes and mechanisms of disinformation in different areas of knowledge. Antonio M. Bañón Hernández Copyright (c) 2021 Antonio M. Bañón Hernández Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Misleading Discourse on Instagram: A Multimodal Study of Latin American Presidential Candidates in the Face of COVID-19 Instagram as a multimodal information network has helped politicians to position both their brand and their campaign. We analyzed whether the images and texts published during the pandemic contained misinformation. We studied from a multimodal perspective the Instagram accounts of the presidential candidates of four Latin American countries which held elections in 2021 to identify how much of the discourse was related to controlling the pandemic. The discourse was analyzed using different taxonomies. In the correlation between the discourse and following the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO), Chile stood out with the highest level of pandemic compliance; Peru and Ecuador were placed in the middle, while Honduras showed little if any interest. The conclusion was that politicians focused primarily on their campaigns and marginally on the pandemic. The omission of COVID-19 from most publications reflected a misinformative discourse which could potentially confuse the public. Marga Cabrera-Méndez, Rodrigo Cisternas Osorio, Alberto J. López-Navarrete, Rebeca Díez-Somavilla Copyright (c) 2021 Marga Cabrera-Méndez, Rodrigo Cisternas Osorio, Alberto J. López-Navarrete, Rebeca Díez-Somavilla Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Multimodal disinformation about otherness on the internet. The spread of racist, xenophobic and Islamophobic fake news in 2020 This work studies the use of disinformation to construct an image of otherness through the internet. We applied a content analysis methodology to the 161 racist, xenophobic or Islamophobic fake news pieces that were discredited in 2020 by the four Spanish information verification media entities accredited by the International Fact-Checking Network: <em></em>, <em>Newtral</em>, <em>Efe Verifica</em> and <em>Verificat</em>. The results show that the most commonly used formats were image and video, that disinformation was most often based on taking information out of context and deception, and that the source could not be identified. The most shared characteristics associated otherness with receiving aid, violence and illegal immigration. The most commonly used images were photographs, which mostly showed people in a general manner (not individually). Despite this, disinformation was not generated by manipulating images, but by inserting text over images. The use of supposed screenshots to create fictitious references or take truthful screenshots out of context was also notable. José Gamir-Ríos, Raquel Tarullo, Miguel Ibáñez-Cuquerella Copyright (c) 2021 José Gamir-Ríos, Raquel Tarullo, Miguel Ibáñez-Cuquerella Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Beyond challenges and viral dance moves: TikTok as a vehicle for disinformation and fact-checking in Spain, Portugal, Brazil, and the USA This paper analyses the narrative of disinformation disseminated through the social network TikTok, a network which is popular at a global level and whose users are mainly young or very young. To do so, a study was carried out on the content of publications on TikTok in four countries with different idiosyncrasies and national realities: Spain, Portugal, Brazil, and the United States. Interviews were also conducted with fact-checking agencies on the potential for misinformation and fact-checking potential on this social network. The results suggest that due to its characteristics as a fresh, visual network with easily shareable and viral content, TikTok is a network that facilitates the spread of disinformation, but which in turn is a tool for debunking hoaxes beyond the range of action of conventional media. Nadia Alonso-López, Pavel Sidorenko-Bautista, Fábio Giacomelli Copyright (c) 2021 Nadia Alonso-López, Pavel Sidorenko-Bautista, Fábio Giacomelli Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Audiovisual verification in the evolution of television newsrooms : Al Jazeera and the transition from satellite to the cloud With the spread of the digital sphere and the proliferation of images from indirect sources that can be accessed by systems and users, verification routines have become essential to ensure media corporations’ credibility. The advances in artificial intelligence which allow automated fact-checking (AFC) initiatives to be created help detect falsehoods, but they do not eliminate the need for human intervention. On the contrary, information professionals are necessary, and their functions increasingly include procedures such as mediating in videos and images. This study analyses the evolution of verification routines in audiovisual journalism and how new techniques have influenced the perception of trustworthiness and the reorganization of the television newsroom by allowing content from outside the media’s own newsroom. To do so, it combines a method that examines the main literature on verification processes and compares it with the procedure used by Al Jazeera. In this regard, an exploration was conducted out based on participant observation in this international TV channel via interaction with journalists and heads of the corporation. The results indicate that advances in verification procedures make it possible to introduce visual material from the social media into the corporation’s common news topics contributing to the transition from the traditional newsroom to the cloud structure and the inclusion of new audiences. These changes affect journalistic routines in a profession which has no longer been in-person for some time, in which correspondents coexist with journalists working in virtual mobility, seeking and receiving images in and from the social media. Lola Bañon Castellón Copyright (c) 2021 Lola Bañon Castellón Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 DeepFakes: The Next Challenge in Fake News Detection A deepfake is a hyper-realistic video, digitally manipulated to represent people saying or doing things that never really happened. With the sophistication of techniques for developing these counterfeits, it is becoming increasingly difficult to detect whether public appearances or statements by influential people respond to parameters of reality or, on the contrary, are the result of fictitious representations. These synthetic documents, generated by computerized techniques based on Artificial Intelligence (AI), pose serious threats to privacy, in a new scenario in which the risks derived from identity theft are increasing. This study aims to advance the state of the art through the analysis of academic news and through an exhaustive literature review, seeking answers to the following questions, which we understand to be of general interest, from both an economic and a social perspective and in various areas of research. What are deepfakes? Who produces them and what technology supports them? What opportunities do they present? What risks are associated with them? What methods exist to combat them? And framing the study in terms of information theory: is this a revolution or an evolution of fake news? As we know, fake news influences public opinion and is effective in appealing to emotions and modifying behaviours. We can assume that these new audiovisual texts will be tremendously effective in undermining, even more if possible, the credibility of digital media, as well as accelerating the already evident exhaustion of critical thinking. Francisco José García-Ull Copyright (c) 2021 Francisco José García-Ull Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200