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The editors shall thus not be held responsible for any obligation or legal action that may derive from the work submitted in terms of violation of third parties' rights, whether intellectual property, trade secret or any other right. (Revista Anàlisi) (Revista Anàlisi) Tue, 31 Jan 2023 09:56:12 +0100 OJS 60 The function of internal communication during the COVID-19 health crisis: Transformation or transubstantiation? <p>To find out whether the role of internal communication was transformed or transubstantiated as a result of the situation caused by the COVID-19 health crisis, a series of structured interviews with communication managers were held from the most severe period of lockdown (April 2020) until the end of the fifth wave (June 2021), with the aim of examining whether the function of internal communication in organizations had been affected by this health crisis and if so, to what extent. Internal communication as a managerial function underwent adaptation and adjustments, for which organizations had no ad hoc existing manuals or guidelines to follow <em>in stricto sensu</em>, because the nearest precedent comparable to the current situation occurred over a century ago and within a completely different economic context. The pandemic has led to a marked digitization of internal communication channels, the dissemination of contents focused on health, well-being and safety of employees, alignment with the team, transparency, sustainability and diversity, with the express aim of providing emotional support and forging an image of security. It has also become an accelerating factor from a strategic perspective. Furthermore, new gaps have emerged, such as the need for employee self-management, along with managerial challenges posed by ambiguity, privacy, data accuracy and security and worklife balance in the teleworking context. All these concerns imply and require the direct involvement of internal communication to tackle them and find solutions. Yet what has changed is the various ways the internal communication function displays itself, but not the substance of the discipline. Thus, continuity in the strategic management of this function is crucial for its further development as an essential contribution for facing current and upcoming challenges.</p> Joan Cuenca-Fontbona, Marc Compte-Pujol, Mariana Sueldo Copyright (c) 2023 Joan Cuenca-Fontbona, Marc Compte-Pujol, Mariana Sueldo Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic. The perception of communications executives in companies: The role and challenges of internal communication <p>The Covid-19 pandemic has tested the role of internal communication (IC) in managing adaptation to change and digitalisation in companies, in the context of a sudden switch to implementing remote working, the reorientation and temporary interruption of activity and mass redundancies. With the aim of analysing the effect of Covid-19 on the assessment of corporate communication managers regarding the business environment and the challenges faced by IC departments in Spain, a statistical analysis compares data collected in 2018 and 2020 (N=118 and N=69 respectively) on the perceptions of members of Dircom (Asociación de Directivos de Comunicación) [Association of Communication Executives]. In addition, a systematic analysis of the 2020 open questions is carried out. The results highlight an improvement in the perception that investment in IC is sufficient during the pandemic, although it remains among the worst rated aspects of the business context. Managing digital and media developments, linking IC with corporate strategy and strengthening the role of communication in decision-making are the greatest perceived challenges, with no changes due to Covid-19. On the other hand, the majority of the respondents believe that Covid-19 is having a positive influence on IC, showing its importance for the proper functioning of the business during the pandemic, with an increase in its actions. More than half of the respondents appreciate that IC has driven business values and changes in the way these departments operate; two-thirds have learned lessons for their business; and almost three-quarters perceive that the incorporation of audiovisual and on-line media will continue.</p> Cristina Aced Toledano, Susana Miquel Segarra, María-Cruz López-de-Ayala Copyright (c) 2023 Cristina Aced Toledano, Susana Miquel Segarra, María-Cruz López-de-Ayala Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Historical evolution of public relations psychology in Europe and the United States <p>The study provides a chronological review of public relations (PR) analysed from the perspective of psychology, highlighting milestones, concepts, theories and models. It offers a synthesis of its origins in Europe and how it was imported to the United States, where it was strongly implemented at the academic, political and business levels. The foundations of the emergence and development of PR have psychology as a fundamental pillar (Bernays, 1928) in understanding the propagandistic effects on people’s social behaviour. Therefore, it seems that it would be practically impossible to understand and apply this construct throughout history without this joint interdisciplinary work, both in explaining individual and collective response and in diachronically changing behaviour in organizations (Grunig, 1976). An in-depth exploration is carried out of the international manuscripts published to date which highlight the interactions of PR with psychology in terms of public behaviour, leadership and behaviour within organizations. The results bring to light an international perspective of basic contributions and some historic gaps along the way. The identification of several key events from the past helps to understand better the general conceptual framework that connects PR and psychology. The research reveals that there is still a gap regarding the existence of a general theory to explain the history of PR psychology. Nevertheless, from a PR perspective, its psychological influence on the behaviours of the population and the persuasion of stakeholders seems indisputable.</p> Rocío Torres-Mancera Copyright (c) 2023 Rocío Torres-Mancera Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Bibliometric analysis and network mapping of the scientific literature on the influence of public relations on well-being and happiness <p>Managing employees’ happiness and well-being as a business strategy offers positive outcomes for companies, as has been widely studied in the scientific literature. In the field of public relations, published studies address these benefits for individuals and collectively, both for the employees themselves (Pérez, 2020) and for the organisation for which they work, whether intangible or tangible (Castro-Martínez and Díaz-Morilla, 2020; Sidney et al., 2017). However, the function of promoting a good working environment is not always attended to in the workplace, nor is it always exclusive to a specific area (Bowen, 2008). In addition to a systematic documentary review, the Web of Science database is used for a bibliometric study and network mapping of the scientific literature, from which articles are extracted for analysis using different bibliographic searches. Based on the information obtained, VOSviewer software is used for the analysis of bibliometric networks by authorship, citation and co-occurrence of keywords in scientific publications. The number of articles published on the management of happiness and wellbeing in organisations as part of their public relations has increased significantly over the last decade, although there has been a notable change in this growth since 2021. According to the research, corporate social responsibility programmes are increasingly considering these aspects as part of their organisational strategy, and departments such as human resources are taking on a greater role in generating a good working environment. This study provides an overview of the international production of scientific publications on the subject of happiness management and organisational well-being from the point of view of public relations. It shows the evolution of scientific activity in terms of the number of works published by area of knowledge and the current trends in terms of authorship, subject matter and repercussion in the scientific field.</p> Dolores Rando-Cueto, José Manuel Nuñez-Sánchez, Carmen Jambrino-Maldonado, Patricia P. Iglesias-Sánchez, Carlos de las Heras-Pedrosa Copyright (c) 2023 Dolores Rando-Cueto, José Manuel Nuñez-Sánchez, Carmen Jambrino-Maldonado, Patricia P. Iglesias-Sánchez, Carlos de las Heras-Pedrosa Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Advertising and public relations degrees: profiles and the glass ceiling in the Spanish labour market <p>According to data from the Spanish Association of Advertising Agencies, 90% of management positions in communication companies are occupied by men. However, the percentage of women studying communication degrees in Spanish universities, and specifically bachelor’s and master’s degrees in advertising and public relations, is higher than that of male students. This study evaluates the gender perspective taught in advertising and public relations degrees in Spain, to determine whether society demands this female vision of communication, PR, advertising and institutional and corporate activity. Furthermore, it gathers opinions on the role of women in the structure of communication companies. Based on triangulation, the methodology combines a content analysis of university syllabi, a questionnaire for students or graduates, and a panel of experts made up of academics teaching degree courses in advertising and public relations and communication practitioners. The results point to adequate and constantly (r)evolving training, in which skills and curricula meet the professional environment. Factors such as crisis, digital progress, the expansion of new work formats and the new role of the consumer require multidisciplinary teams with transversal skills – where women have a significant role to play.</p> Gloria Jiménez-Marín, Víctor Álvarez-Rodríguez, Isabel Palomo-Domínguez Copyright (c) 2023 Gloria Jiménez-Marín, Víctor Álvarez-Rodríguez, Isabel Palomo-Domínguez Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 The scope of crowdfunding in responsible university relations <p>This paper describes the first decade of crowdfunding (CF) experiences carried out in the Spanish university environment from the perspective of social responsibility and determines the impact of their campaigns in solving social problems. To do so, the literature, from traditional patronage practices to current models of micro crowdfunding in the digital environment, allow framing crowdfunding by putting the focus on the relationship of universities with their audiences and the agents involved in the campaigns they launch from 2012 to the present, as part of their purposes with society. To achieve the objectives, a content analysis of the 56 CF campaigns, launched by a dozen Spanish public universities, was carried out. The study concludes that the fluctuations in the evolution and development of university crowdfunding (UCF) and the scarce existence of their own platforms have not yet allowed its consolidation as a tool of their University Social Responsibility (USR). In addition, UCF campaigns in Spain place value on research at the service of society, moving away from philanthropy to exercise social responsibility, although they are generally focused on their internal audiences, so their social impact is limited.</p> Ana Ibáñez-Hernández, Carmen Carreton-Ballester, Javier Esclapés, Maria José Rodríguez-Jaume Copyright (c) 2023 Ana Ibáñez-Hernández, Carmen Carreton-Ballester, Javier Esclapés, Maria José Rodríguez-Jaume Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 The current role of influencers in public relations: Comparing Spain and the USA <p>Influencers currently play a key role in corporate communications. Their presence is increasing in promotional activities, initiated both by private companies and public institutions, which has transformed them into particularly important figures over the past decade. But what is their specific role in public relations? Are they also part of PR campaigns? Are they considered a useful tool? This paper intends to provide answers to these questions, first by reviewing the academic literature in order to gather information about the current position of influencers within PR campaigns; and next, by analyzing two surveys completed by professionals in the USA and Spain, in order to understand the situation in both countries and to compare them with one another, so as to give a more complete picture of the current scenario. The bibliometric review shows that academia is studying the figure of the influencer, both from a general and a public relations point of view, acknowledging its importance in strategic communication today. Furthermore, the results of the questionnaires reveal that PR companies are actively hiring influencers; that they are considered a good complement to their other tools; and that these partnerships are delivering good results for their clients. Although incorporating them involves challenges, practitioners are improving their managing processes and believe that such collaborations will continue in the future.</p> Carmen Máiz-Bar, Javier Abuín-Penas Copyright (c) 2023 Carmen Máiz-Bar, Javier Abuín-Penas Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 “We have an Ondas Award and a lot of anxiety”: Engagement strategies and parasociality of the Estirando el chicle podcast <p>The <em>Estirando el chicle</em> [Stretching the chewing gum] audiovisual podcast is analyzed as a success story that focuses on the connection between the program and its social audiences to determine whether elements of parasociality exist. The case study method is used, with a mixed design that combines discourse analysis and content analysis to understand: 1) the discursive strategies used by the creators, searching for a co-orientation effect with their audience, and 2) whether fandom expresses the existence of parasociality on Youtube. The results show that the hosts use five strategies to be perceived as authentic and to connect with their audience: self-revelation, the “behind-the-scenes” narrative subgenre, visibility of mental health issues, rejection of the aspirational discourse of influencers, and the simulation of interaction. As regards signs of parasociality among the fandom, it is found that 63.8% of comments address the hosts with familiarity, 14.4% of the texts express affectivity belonging to the primary group, and the gratifications from the podcast obtained are entertainment (46.5%), the sense of belonging to the community (18.9%), self-expression (11%), identification (4.7%), and an improvement in some aspect of their life (4.7%).</p> Lucía Caro Castaño, Lourdes Gallardo Hurtado Copyright (c) 2023 Lucía Caro Castaño, Lourdes Gallardo Hurtado Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Introduction <p>Introduction to the Anàlisi 67 volume.</p> Marc Compte-Pujol, Joan Cuenca-Fontbona Copyright (c) 2023 Marc Compte-Pujol, Joan Cuenca-Fontbona Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100